C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a general-purpose computer programming language. It is a statically typed free-form multi-paradigm language supporting procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming. During the 1990s, C++ became one of the most popular commercial programming languages. Strictly speaking, C++ is not a superset of C, but for all practical purposes one can consider it thus.
Differences in C++ from C
Features introduced in C++ include declarations as statements, function-like casts,
bool, reference types,
inline functions, default arguments, function overloading, namespaces, classes (including all class-related features such as inheritance, member functions, virtual functions, abstract classes, and constructors), operator overloading, templates, the
:: operator, exception handling, and run-time type identification.
C++ also performs more type checking than C in several cases.
Several features of C++ were later adopted by C, including
inline, declarations in
for loops, and C++-style comments (using the
// symbol). However, C99 also introduced
features that do not exist in C++, such as variadic macros and better handling of arrays as parameters.
Design of C++
In The Design and Evolution of C++ ISBN 0-201-54330-3, Bjarne Stroustrup describes some rules that he uses for the design of C++. Knowing the rules helps to understand why C++ is the way it is. The following is a summary of the rules. Much more detail can be found in The Design and Evolution of C++.
- C++ is designed to be a statically typed, general-purpose language that is as efficient and portable as C
- C++ is designed to directly and comprehensively support multiple programming styles (procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming)
- C++ is designed to give the programmer choice, even if this makes it possible for the programmer to choose incorrectly
- C++ is designed to be as compatible with C as possible, therefore providing a smooth transition from C
- C++ avoids features that are platform specific or not general purpose
- C++ does not incur overhead for features that are not used
- C++ is designed to function without a sophisticated programming environment
Please refer to the indepth book on C++ Internals by Stanley B. Lippman (he worked on implementing/maintaining C-front the original C++ implementation at Bell Labs). "Inside the C++ Object Model" documents how the C++ compiler converts your program statements into an in-memory layout.
Roguelike Specific Details
C++ is a great language to write a rogue-like with. It has all the freedom of C, with some additional language features which can make a programmer's life easier (such as templates and classes).
- Linley's Dungeon Crawl
- Frozen Depths
- Labyrinth of Reptoran
- Lair of the Demon Ape
- Magic Monsters
- The Woods of Torbin
- You Only Live Once