Roguelike Tutorial, using python3+tdl, part 6 code

 This is part of a series of tutorials; the main page can be found here. The tutorial uses tdl version 3.0.2 and Python 3.5

AI

```#!/usr/bin/env python3

import tdl
from random import randint
import colors
import math

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45

#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS = 3

FOV_ALGO = 'BASIC'
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True

REALTIME = False
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum

color_dark_wall = (0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = (130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = (50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = (200, 180, 50)

class Tile:
#a tile of the map and its properties
def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight=None):
self.blocked = blocked

#all tiles start unexplored
self.explored = False

#by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
if block_sight is None:
block_sight = blocked
self.block_sight = block_sight

class Rect:
#a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
self.x1 = x
self.y1 = y
self.x2 = x + w
self.y2 = y + h

def center(self):
center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) // 2
center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) // 2
return (center_x, center_y)

def intersect(self, other):
#returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)

class GameObject:
#this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
#it's always represented by a character on screen.
def __init__(self, x, y, char, name, color, blocks=False,
fighter=None, ai=None):
self.x = x
self.y = y
self.char = char
self.color = color
self.name = name
self.blocks = blocks
self.fighter = fighter

if self.fighter:  #let the fighter component know who owns it
self.fighter.owner = self

self.ai = ai
if self.ai:  #let the AI component know who owns it
self.ai.owner = self

def move(self, dx, dy):
#move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
if not is_blocked(self.x + dx, self.y + dy):
self.x += dx
self.y += dy

def move_towards(self, target_x, target_y):
#vector from this object to the target, and distance
dx = target_x - self.x
dy = target_y - self.y
distance = math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)

#normalize it to length 1 (preserving direction), then round it and
#convert to integer so the movement is restricted to the map grid
dx = int(round(dx / distance))
dy = int(round(dy / distance))
self.move(dx, dy)

def distance_to(self, other):
#return the distance to another object
dx = other.x - self.x
dy = other.y - self.y
return math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)

def draw(self):
global visible_tiles

#only show if it's visible to the player
if (self.x, self.y) in visible_tiles:
#draw the character that represents this object at its position
con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, self.char, self.color, bg=None)

def clear(self):
#erase the character that represents this object
con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, ' ', self.color, bg=None)

class Fighter:
#combat-related properties and methods (monster, player, NPC).
def __init__(self, hp, defense, power):
self.max_hp = hp
self.hp = hp
self.defense = defense
self.power = power

class BasicMonster:
#AI for a basic monster.
def take_turn(self):
#a basic monster takes its turn. If you can see it, it can see you
monster = self.owner
if (monster.x, monster.y) in visible_tiles:

#move towards player if far away
if monster.distance_to(player) >= 2:
monster.move_towards(player.x, player.y)

#close enough, attack! (if the player is still alive.)
elif player.fighter.hp > 0:
print('The attack of the ' + monster.name + ' bounces off your shiny metal armor!')

def is_blocked(x, y):
#first test the map tile
if my_map[x][y].blocked:
return True

#now check for any blocking objects
for obj in objects:
if obj.blocks and obj.x == x and obj.y == y:
return True

return False

def create_room(room):
global my_map
#go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
global my_map
for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
global my_map
#vertical tunnel
for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def is_visible_tile(x, y):
global my_map

if x >= MAP_WIDTH or x < 0:
return False
elif y >= MAP_HEIGHT or y < 0:
return False
elif my_map[x][y].blocked == True:
return False
elif my_map[x][y].block_sight == True:
return False
else:
return True

def make_map():
global my_map

#fill map with "blocked" tiles
my_map = [[ Tile(True)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]

rooms = []
num_rooms = 0

for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
#random width and height
w = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
h = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
#random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
x = randint(0, MAP_WIDTH-w-1)
y = randint(0, MAP_HEIGHT-h-1)

#"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)

#run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
failed = False
for other_room in rooms:
if new_room.intersect(other_room):
failed = True
break

if not failed:
#this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid

#"paint" it to the map's tiles
create_room(new_room)

#center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
(new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()

if num_rooms == 0:
#this is the first room, where the player starts at
player.x = new_x
player.y = new_y

else:
#all rooms after the first:
#connect it to the previous room with a tunnel

#center coordinates of previous room
(prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()

#draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
if randint(0, 1):
#first move horizontally, then vertically
create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
else:
#first move vertically, then horizontally
create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)

#add some contents to this room, such as monsters
place_objects(new_room)

#finally, append the new room to the list
rooms.append(new_room)
num_rooms += 1

def place_objects(room):
#choose random number of monsters
num_monsters = randint(0, MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS)

for i in range(num_monsters):
#choose random spot for this monster
x = randint(room.x1, room.x2)
y = randint(room.y1, room.y2)

#only place it if the tile is not blocked
if not is_blocked(x, y):
if randint(0, 100) < 80:  #80% chance of getting an orc
#create an orc
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=10, defense=0, power=3)
ai_component = BasicMonster()

monster = GameObject(x, y, 'o', 'orc', colors.desaturated_green,
blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
else:
#create a troll
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=16, defense=1, power=4)
ai_component = BasicMonster()

monster = GameObject(x, y, 'T', 'troll', colors.darker_green,
blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)

objects.append(monster)

def render_all():
global fov_recompute
global visible_tiles

if fov_recompute:
fov_recompute = False
visible_tiles = tdl.map.quickFOV(player.x, player.y,
is_visible_tile,
fov=FOV_ALGO,
lightWalls=FOV_LIGHT_WALLS)

#go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
visible = (x, y) in visible_tiles
wall = my_map[x][y].block_sight
if not visible:
#if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
if my_map[x][y].explored:
if wall:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_wall)
else:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_ground)
else:
if wall:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_wall)
else:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_ground)
#since it's visible, explore it
my_map[x][y].explored = True

#draw all objects in the list
for obj in objects:
obj.draw()

#blit the contents of "con" to the root console and present it
root.blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0)

def player_move_or_attack(dx, dy):
global fov_recompute

#the coordinates the player is moving to/attacking
x = player.x + dx
y = player.y + dy

#try to find an attackable object there
target = None
for obj in objects:
if obj.x == x and obj.y == y:
target = object
break

#attack if target found, move otherwise
if target is not None:
print('The ' + target.name + ' laughs at your puny efforts to attack him!')
else:
player.move(dx, dy)
fov_recompute = True

def handle_keys():
global playerx, playery
global fov_recompute

if REALTIME:
keypress = False
for event in tdl.event.get():
if event.type == 'KEYDOWN':
user_input = event
keypress = True
if not keypress:
return

else: #turn-based
user_input = tdl.event.key_wait()

if user_input.key == 'ENTER' and user_input.alt:
#Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
tdl.set_fullscreen(True)

elif user_input.key == 'ESCAPE':
return 'exit'  #exit game

if game_state == 'playing':
#movement keys
if user_input.key == 'UP':
player_move_or_attack(0, -1)

elif user_input.key == 'DOWN':
player_move_or_attack(0, 1)

elif user_input.key == 'LEFT':
player_move_or_attack(-1, 0)

elif user_input.key == 'RIGHT':
player_move_or_attack(1, 0)
else:
return 'didnt-take-turn'

#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop                #
#############################################

tdl.set_font('arial10x10.png', greyscale=True, altLayout=True)
root = tdl.init(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, title="Roguelike", fullscreen=False)
tdl.setFPS(LIMIT_FPS)
con = tdl.Console(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)

#create object representing the player
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5)
player = GameObject(0, 0, '@', 'player', colors.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

fov_recompute = True
game_state = 'playing'
player_action = None

while not tdl.event.is_window_closed():

#draw all objects in the list
render_all()

tdl.flush()

#erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
for obj in objects:
obj.clear()

#handle keys and exit game if needed
player_action = handle_keys()
if player_action == 'exit':
break

#let monsters take their turn
if game_state == 'playing' and player_action != 'didnt-take-turn':
for obj in objects:
if obj.ai:
obj.ai.take_turn()
```

Untimely deaths

```#!/usr/bin/env python3

import tdl
from random import randint
import colors
import math

#actual size of the window
SCREEN_WIDTH = 80
SCREEN_HEIGHT = 50

#size of the map
MAP_WIDTH = 80
MAP_HEIGHT = 45

#parameters for dungeon generator
ROOM_MAX_SIZE = 10
ROOM_MIN_SIZE = 6
MAX_ROOMS = 30
MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS = 3

FOV_ALGO = 'BASIC'
FOV_LIGHT_WALLS = True

REALTIME = False
LIMIT_FPS = 20  #20 frames-per-second maximum

color_dark_wall = (0, 0, 100)
color_light_wall = (130, 110, 50)
color_dark_ground = (50, 50, 150)
color_light_ground = (200, 180, 50)

class Tile:
#a tile of the map and its properties
def __init__(self, blocked, block_sight=None):
self.blocked = blocked

#all tiles start unexplored
self.explored = False

#by default, if a tile is blocked, it also blocks sight
if block_sight is None:
block_sight = blocked
self.block_sight = block_sight

class Rect:
#a rectangle on the map. used to characterize a room.
def __init__(self, x, y, w, h):
self.x1 = x
self.y1 = y
self.x2 = x + w
self.y2 = y + h

def center(self):
center_x = (self.x1 + self.x2) // 2
center_y = (self.y1 + self.y2) // 2
return (center_x, center_y)

def intersect(self, other):
#returns true if this rectangle intersects with another one
return (self.x1 <= other.x2 and self.x2 >= other.x1 and
self.y1 <= other.y2 and self.y2 >= other.y1)

class GameObject:
#this is a generic object: the player, a monster, an item, the stairs...
#it's always represented by a character on screen.
def __init__(self, x, y, char, name, color, blocks=False,
fighter=None, ai=None):
self.x = x
self.y = y
self.char = char
self.color = color
self.name = name
self.blocks = blocks
self.fighter = fighter

if self.fighter:  #let the fighter component know who owns it
self.fighter.owner = self

self.ai = ai
if self.ai:  #let the AI component know who owns it
self.ai.owner = self

def move(self, dx, dy):
#move by the given amount, if the destination is not blocked
if not is_blocked(self.x + dx, self.y + dy):
self.x += dx
self.y += dy

def move_towards(self, target_x, target_y):
#vector from this object to the target, and distance
dx = target_x - self.x
dy = target_y - self.y
distance = math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)

#normalize it to length 1 (preserving direction), then round it and
#convert to integer so the movement is restricted to the map grid
dx = int(round(dx / distance))
dy = int(round(dy / distance))
self.move(dx, dy)

def distance_to(self, other):
#return the distance to another object
dx = other.x - self.x
dy = other.y - self.y
return math.sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)

def send_to_back(self):
#make this object be drawn first, so all others appear above it if they're in the same tile.
global objects
objects.remove(self)
objects.insert(0, self)

def draw(self):
global visible_tiles

#only show if it's visible to the player
if (self.x, self.y) in visible_tiles:
#draw the character that represents this object at its position
con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, self.char, self.color, bg=None)

def clear(self):
#erase the character that represents this object
con.draw_char(self.x, self.y, ' ', self.color, bg=None)

class Fighter:
#combat-related properties and methods (monster, player, NPC).
def __init__(self, hp, defense, power, death_function=None):
self.max_hp = hp
self.hp = hp
self.defense = defense
self.power = power
self.death_function = death_function

def take_damage(self, damage):
#apply damage if possible
if damage > 0:
self.hp -= damage

#check for death. if there's a death function, call it
if self.hp <= 0:
function = self.death_function
if function is not None:
function(self.owner)

def attack(self, target):
#a simple formula for attack damage
damage = self.power - target.fighter.defense

if damage > 0:
#make the target take some damage
print(self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name +
' for ' + str(damage) + ' hit points.')
target.fighter.take_damage(damage)
else:
print(self.owner.name.capitalize() + ' attacks ' + target.name +
' but it has no effect!')

class BasicMonster:
#AI for a basic monster.
def take_turn(self):
#a basic monster takes its turn. If you can see it, it can see you
monster = self.owner
if (monster.x, monster.y) in visible_tiles:

#move towards player if far away
if monster.distance_to(player) >= 2:
monster.move_towards(player.x, player.y)

#close enough, attack! (if the player is still alive.)
elif player.fighter.hp > 0:
monster.fighter.attack(player)

def is_blocked(x, y):
#first test the map tile
if my_map[x][y].blocked:
return True

#now check for any blocking objects
for obj in objects:
if obj.blocks and obj.x == x and obj.y == y:
return True

return False

def create_room(room):
global my_map
#go through the tiles in the rectangle and make them passable
for x in range(room.x1 + 1, room.x2):
for y in range(room.y1 + 1, room.y2):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_h_tunnel(x1, x2, y):
global my_map
for x in range(min(x1, x2), max(x1, x2) + 1):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def create_v_tunnel(y1, y2, x):
global my_map
#vertical tunnel
for y in range(min(y1, y2), max(y1, y2) + 1):
my_map[x][y].blocked = False
my_map[x][y].block_sight = False

def is_visible_tile(x, y):
global my_map

if x >= MAP_WIDTH or x < 0:
return False
elif y >= MAP_HEIGHT or y < 0:
return False
elif my_map[x][y].blocked == True:
return False
elif my_map[x][y].block_sight == True:
return False
else:
return True

def make_map():
global my_map

#fill map with "blocked" tiles
my_map = [[ Tile(True)
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT) ]
for x in range(MAP_WIDTH) ]

rooms = []
num_rooms = 0

for r in range(MAX_ROOMS):
#random width and height
w = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
h = randint(ROOM_MIN_SIZE, ROOM_MAX_SIZE)
#random position without going out of the boundaries of the map
x = randint(0, MAP_WIDTH-w-1)
y = randint(0, MAP_HEIGHT-h-1)

#"Rect" class makes rectangles easier to work with
new_room = Rect(x, y, w, h)

#run through the other rooms and see if they intersect with this one
failed = False
for other_room in rooms:
if new_room.intersect(other_room):
failed = True
break

if not failed:
#this means there are no intersections, so this room is valid

#"paint" it to the map's tiles
create_room(new_room)

#center coordinates of new room, will be useful later
(new_x, new_y) = new_room.center()

if num_rooms == 0:
#this is the first room, where the player starts at
player.x = new_x
player.y = new_y

else:
#all rooms after the first:
#connect it to the previous room with a tunnel

#center coordinates of previous room
(prev_x, prev_y) = rooms[num_rooms-1].center()

#draw a coin (random number that is either 0 or 1)
if randint(0, 1):
#first move horizontally, then vertically
create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, prev_y)
create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, new_x)
else:
#first move vertically, then horizontally
create_v_tunnel(prev_y, new_y, prev_x)
create_h_tunnel(prev_x, new_x, new_y)

#add some contents to this room, such as monsters
place_objects(new_room)

#finally, append the new room to the list
rooms.append(new_room)
num_rooms += 1

def place_objects(room):
#choose random number of monsters
num_monsters = randint(0, MAX_ROOM_MONSTERS)

for i in range(num_monsters):
#choose random spot for this monster
x = randint(room.x1, room.x2)
y = randint(room.y1, room.y2)

#only place it if the tile is not blocked
if not is_blocked(x, y):
if randint(0, 100) < 80:  #80% chance of getting an orc
#create an orc
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=10, defense=0, power=3,
death_function=monster_death)
ai_component = BasicMonster()

monster = GameObject(x, y, 'o', 'orc', colors.desaturated_green,
blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)
else:
#create a troll
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=16, defense=1, power=4,
death_function=monster_death)
ai_component = BasicMonster()

monster = GameObject(x, y, 'T', 'troll', colors.darker_green,
blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component, ai=ai_component)

objects.append(monster)

def render_all():
global fov_recompute
global visible_tiles

if fov_recompute:
fov_recompute = False
visible_tiles = tdl.map.quickFOV(player.x, player.y,
is_visible_tile,
fov=FOV_ALGO,
lightWalls=FOV_LIGHT_WALLS)

#go through all tiles, and set their background color according to the FOV
for y in range(MAP_HEIGHT):
for x in range(MAP_WIDTH):
visible = (x, y) in visible_tiles
wall = my_map[x][y].block_sight
if not visible:
#if it's not visible right now, the player can only see it if it's explored
if my_map[x][y].explored:
if wall:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_wall)
else:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_dark_ground)
else:
if wall:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_wall)
else:
con.draw_char(x, y, None, fg=None, bg=color_light_ground)
#since it's visible, explore it
my_map[x][y].explored = True

#draw all objects in the list
for obj in objects:
if obj != player:
obj.draw()
player.draw()
#blit the contents of "con" to the root console and present it
root.blit(con, 0, 0, SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, 0, 0)

#show the player's stats
con.draw_str(1, SCREEN_HEIGHT - 2, 'HP: ' + str(player.fighter.hp) + '/' +
str(player.fighter.max_hp) + ' ')

def player_move_or_attack(dx, dy):
global fov_recompute

#the coordinates the player is moving to/attacking
x = player.x + dx
y = player.y + dy

#try to find an attackable object there
target = None
for obj in objects:
if obj.fighter and obj.x == x and obj.y == y:
target = object
break

#attack if target found, move otherwise
if target is not None:
player.fighter.attack(target)
else:
player.move(dx, dy)
fov_recompute = True

def handle_keys():
global playerx, playery
global fov_recompute

if REALTIME:
keypress = False
for event in tdl.event.get():
if event.type == 'KEYDOWN':
user_input = event
keypress = True
if not keypress:
return

else: #turn-based
user_input = tdl.event.key_wait()

if user_input.key == 'ENTER' and user_input.alt:
#Alt+Enter: toggle fullscreen
tdl.set_fullscreen(True)

elif user_input.key == 'ESCAPE':
return 'exit'  #exit game

if game_state == 'playing':
#movement keys
if user_input.key == 'UP':
player_move_or_attack(0, -1)

elif user_input.key == 'DOWN':
player_move_or_attack(0, 1)

elif user_input.key == 'LEFT':
player_move_or_attack(-1, 0)

elif user_input.key == 'RIGHT':
player_move_or_attack(1, 0)
else:
return 'didnt-take-turn'

def player_death(player):
#the game ended!
global game_state
print('You died!')

#for added effect, transform the player into a corpse!
player.char = '%'
player.color = colors.dark_red

def monster_death(monster):
#transform it into a nasty corpse! it doesn't block, can't be
#attacked and doesn't move
monster.char = '%'
monster.color = colors.dark_red
monster.blocks = False
monster.fighter = None
monster.ai = None
monster.name = 'remains of ' + monster.name
monster.send_to_back()

#############################################
# Initialization & Main Loop                #
#############################################

tdl.set_font('arial10x10.png', greyscale=True, altLayout=True)
root = tdl.init(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, title="Roguelike", fullscreen=False)
tdl.setFPS(LIMIT_FPS)
con = tdl.Console(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT)

#create object representing the player
fighter_component = Fighter(hp=30, defense=2, power=5, death_function=player_death)
player = GameObject(0, 0, '@', 'player', colors.white, blocks=True, fighter=fighter_component)

#the list of objects with those two
objects = [player]

#generate map (at this point it's not drawn to the screen)
make_map()

fov_recompute = True
game_state = 'playing'
player_action = None

while not tdl.event.is_window_closed():

#draw all objects in the list
render_all()

tdl.flush()

#erase all objects at their old locations, before they move
for obj in objects:
obj.clear()

#handle keys and exit game if needed
player_action = handle_keys()
if player_action == 'exit':
break

#let monsters take their turn
if game_state == 'playing' and player_action != 'didnt-take-turn':
for obj in objects:
if obj.ai:
obj.ai.take_turn()
```